It seems to me that everyone should have a tool in their mental toolkit to the effect of “but what would they say if they weren’t telling the truth or the right story?”. For example, in the sports world you have someone accused of juicing. The innocent person will say that they didn’t juice, that they are upset by the allegation, and that they intend to fight to clear their good name. This is also precisely what the guilty person will say. I’m often surprised when people speak as though there is a lot of information that comes from someone having said something. Realistically, if there is any incentive at all, you can pretty much count on hearing the best or innocent statement regardless of what actually happened. Perhaps this is a minor tool that many would consider obvious. My thinking is that for something that is obvious, I sure see a lot of examples of the tool not being used.